November 15, 1997

Laureats Prix Paris Photo 1997

Le prix Paris Photo 1997, Salon International de la Photographie,  a récompensé 9 artistes photographes dont les photographies sont présentées dans le cadre du salon au Caroussel du Louvre à Paris lors de l'exposition Regards croisés, du 21 au 24 novembre 1997.

Genin Andrada, Espagne,  1963
Valérie Belin, France, 1964
Stéphane Couturier, France, 1957
Lin Delpierre, France, 1962
Roland Fischer, Allemagne, 1958
Delphine Kreuter, France, 1973
Vik Muniz, Brésil, 1961
Mabel Palacin, Espagne 1964
Mark Segal, Etats-Unis, 1968

Paris Photo 1997
Caroussel du Louvre
99, rue de Rivoli
75001 Paris

Andy Warhol: After the Party - Works 1956-1986 at the Irish Museum of Modern Art, Dublin

Andy Warhol: After the Party - Works 1956-1986
Irish Museum of Modern Art, Dublin
20 November 1997 - 22 March 1998

The first major exhibition in Ireland of the work of Andy Warhol, one of the defining figures of 20th-century art, opens to the public at the Irish Museum of Modern Art on 20 November. Andy Warhol: After the Party - Works 1956-1986 is sponsored by ACCBank and comprises some 100 works drawn mainly from the collections of the Warhol Museum in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, the most comprehensive single-artist museum in the world. It includes early drawings from the 1950s as well as better-known iconic works from the 1960s and ‘70s, such as the Marilyn, Jackie, Mao and Campbell’s Soup Can paintings. Examples ofAndy Warhol’s Cow Wallpaper, Cloud Pillows, disaster paintings and a range of source material are also included; plus a series of angel and cat drawings by Warhol’s mother, Julia Warhola. The exhibition will be officially opened by Ms Sile de Valera, TD, Minister for Arts, Heritage, Gaeltacht and the Islands at 6.00pm on Wednesday 19 November. 

The exhibition explores Andy Warhol’s work at a number of levels, providing an opportunity to see both his apparently uncritical celebration of the mass culture image as a commodity and his simultaneous subversion of that celebration. A constant, though often unacknowledged, refrain of death, culminating in the memento mori images towards the end of his life, is the core theme of the exhibition. The Director of the Irish Museum of Modern Art, Declan McGonagle, says ‘It is interesting how new readings of Warhol’s work and influence are beginning to develop. Warhol was not just a chronicler of consumer culture. It is increasingly clear that, as a late 20th-century artist using contemporary language, media and forms, he was exploring ideas of life and death which have always formed the basis of great art. This exhibition both asks people and gives them the opportunity to look at Warhol differently by representing his total practice as an artist’. 

In the context of this full retrospective, the Museum will also present a series of Gun paintings, which were made in 1982-83. The series was shown at the Anthony d’Offay Gallery in London earlier this year, their first showing as a group in over a decade. In these images, ‘so beautiful, so desirable’; Andy Warhol evokes the appeal of the gun as a commodity and a cinematic prop and draws on American mass culture to create a powerful symbol of life and death. This repetitive, intense exploration of a single image represents a powerful coda to the main exhibition. The Irish Museum of Modern Art is grateful to the d’Offay Gallery for lending the works for this element of the overall project. 

Born in Pittsburg in 1928 to East European parents, Andy Warhol moved to New York in 1949, where he became one of American’s leading commercial artists. By the early 1960s he had turned his attention to the field of fine art and was exhibiting his Pop paintings and sculpture - including Heinz Boxes, Marilyns and Campbell’s Soup Cans - in New York and Los Angeles. At this time he was already making images about death and disaster, which remain among his most critically-acclaimed series. Despite a near fatal shooting in 1968, Warhol continued to be enormously prolific. During the 1970s and ‘80s though widely known for his celebrity portraits, he also made some of his most ambitious and greatest paintings during this period, including Skull 1976, After the Party 1979, and Last Supper, made in the year of his death 1986. 

Over the course of a 30-year-long career, Andy Warhol transformed contemporary art. The power of his work comes from its concentration on fundamental human themes - the beauty and glamour of youth and fame, material culture and the passing of time, and the presence of death. Employing mass-production techniques, Warhol challenged preconceived notions about the nature of art and erased traditional distinctions between fine art and popular culture. 

Irish Museum of Modern Art
Royal Hospital, Military Road, Kilmainham, Dublin 8

November 1, 1997

Etudes Photographiques - Frontieres de l'image / Le territoire et le document

Frontières de l'image / Le territoire et le document
Collections publiques / Lieux de mémoire
Sommaire du numéro 3 de novembre 1997
André Gunthert, Au doigt ou à l'oeil
Helmut Gernsheim, La première photographie au monde
Collections publiques
Sylvie Aubenas, Le petit monde de Disdéri
Un fonds d'atelier du Second Empire
Frontières de l'image
Michel Frizot, La parole des primitifs
À propos des calotypistes français
Jean-Luc Gall, Photo/sculpture
L'invention de François Willème
Le territoire et le document
Luce Lebart, La "restauration" des montagnes
Les photographies de l'Administration des forêts dans la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle
Dominique Gauthey, Les archives de la reconstruction
Lieux de mémoire
Christian Delage et Vincent Guigueno, " Ce qui est donné à voir, ce que nous pouvons montrer "
Georges Perec, Robert Bober et la rue Vilin
Notes de lecture
Michel Poivert
Anna AUER (éd.), Die vergessenen Briefe und Schriften, Vienne, Photographische Gesellschaft in Wien, 1997, 91 p., ill. NB.
André Gunthert
Walter BENJAMIN, Sur l'art et la photographie (textes traduits par C. Jouanlanne et M. B. de Launay, présentation de C. Jouanlanne), Paris, Carré, 1997, 96 p., 35 F.
Véronique Figini
Françoise DENOYELLE, La Lumière de Paris (t. I, Le Marché de la photographie, 1919-1939,211 p., ann., ill., 130 F ; t. II, Les Usages de la photographie, 1919-1939, 365 p., 39 ill. NB, ann., bibl., 190 F), Paris, Éd. L'Harmattan, 1977.
André Gunthert
Georges DIDI-HUBERMAN, "La ressemblance par contact. Archéologie, anachronisme et modernité de l'empreinte", in G. Didi-Huberman (dir.), L'Empreinte, Paris, Centre Georges Pompidou, 1997, p. 15-192.
Paul-Louis Roubert
Alain FLEIG, Rêves de papier. La photographie orientaliste, 1860-1914, Neuchâtel, Éd. Ides et Calendes, 1997, 177 p., ill. NB, 290 F.
Michel Poivert
Fotogeschichte, "Die Geschichte der Geschichte" (actes coll.) 17e année, n°63 et 64, 1997.
Xavier Martel
Irma NOSEDA et al., Die Fotografendynastie Linckin Winterthur und Zürich, Zurich, OZV, 1996, 247 p., nb. ill. NB.
Marta Braun
Laurent MANNONI, Marc de la FERRIÈRE, Paul DEMENY, Georges Demenÿ, pionnier du cinéma, Douai, Éd. Pagine, 1997, 192 p., ill. NB, bibl., filmographie, 195 F.
Vincent LavoieAnthony HERNANDEZ, Fils d'Adam : Paysages pour les sans-abri II, Paris/Lausanne (cat. exp.), textes de Régis Durand et Christophe Blaser, Paris, Lausanne, Centre national de la photographie/musée de l'Élysée, 1997, 72 p., ill. coul., 150 F.
Emmanuel HermangeJean-Marc HUITOREL, Francis LACLOCHE, Photographie d'une collection, 2. OEuvres photographiques de la Caisse des dépôts et consignations, Paris, Hazan, 1997, 173 p., ill. NB et coul., invent.
Michel Poivert
Hans P. KRAUSS Jr, Larry J. SCHAAF, Sun Pictures. The Rubel Collection Fine Photographs (cat. de vente), New York, 1997, 78 p., 25 pl. bichr., CD-Rom (195 ill. coul.).
David A. HANSON, Sydney TILYM, Photographs in Ink (cat. exp.), Teaneck (New Jersey), University College Art Gallery, Fairleigh Dickinson University, 41 p., 30 pl. coul., glossaire, ind., CD-Rom (glossaire illustré).
Sylvie Aubenas
Ken JACOBSON, Anthony HAMBER, Étude d'après nature. 19th Century Photographs in Relation to Art, Petches Bridge, K. & J. Jacobson, 1996, 192 p., 400 ill. NB et coul., bibl., ann.
[Serge PLANTUREUX], Objets du désir, Paris, S. Plantureux, 1997 (catalogue n°5), 224 p., env. 500 ill. NB, 100F.

October 19, 1997

Kiki Smith at the Irish Museum of Modern Art, Dublin

Kiki Smith: Convergence
Irish Musuem of Modern Art, Dublin
24 October 1997 - 15 February 1998

The first major solo exhibition in Ireland of the work of Kiki Smith, one of America’s leading contemporary artists, opens to the public at the Irish Museum of Modern Art on 24 October. Kiki Smith: Convergence ranges over ten years of Kiki Smith’s work from 1988 and reflects her main concerns in terms of subject matter and use of colour and materials. It features a number of her characteristic sculptures based on the human body, a number of more recent drawings from 1996 and 1997, and mixed-media works using materials such as glass, crystal and neon, which mark a shift in focus from the human to animal forms and the natural world. 

Kiki Smith is best known for her works based on the female body which she presents in stark, often provocative terms - its flesh, blood, secretion and excretions suggesting fundamental questions of life and death. As an artist Smith gives birth to adult forms still grimy with the process of delivery. Indeed, a paradox of her works is that one cannot tell if they are coming into existence or passing out of it through decay and disintegration. Both formally and psychologically, these sculptures break with traditional notions of the depiction of the human figure in art. 

Using the physical body as her starting point, Kiki Smith explores the wider female condition in works suggesting pain, humiliation and subservience. There are also allusions to religious rituals and beliefs, which reflect her Catholic upbringing. The artist has selected works for this exhibition by using the device of colour for individual rooms at the museum - red, yellow, blue, green, brown and silver - colours which have been a strong force in her work. 

Kiki Smith was born in Nuremberg, Germany, in 1954. She moved to the United States as a child and in 1976 moved to New York where she now lives and works. In 1979-80 she began to work with the body using Gray’s Anatomy as a reference. She had her first solo exhibition Life Wants to Live at The Kitchen in New York in 1982. Since then she has exhibited to considerable critical acclaim in solo and group shows worldwide. Kiki Smith’s sculpture was included in From Beyond the Pale at the Irish Museum of Modern Art in 1994. 

Irish Museum of Modern Art
Royal Hospital, Military Road, Kilmainham, Dublin 8

October 16, 1997

Compact Nikon Coolpix 300

Nikon Coolpix 300
Sortie en 1997, après le Coolpix 100, sortie également en 1997, le Nikon Coolpix 300 est le second appareil photo numérique fabriqué par Nikon.
Liens vers d'autres messages connexes du blog : Anciens Compacts NikonNikon Coolpix 100Nikon Coolpix 600Nikon Coolpix 700Nikon Coolpix 775 - Nikon Coolpix 800Nikon Coolpix 880Nikon Coolpix 885Nikon Coolpix 900Nikon Coolpix 950 - Nikon Coolpix 990Nikon Coolpix 995Nikon Coolpix 2000Nikon Coolpix 2100Nikon Coolpix 2500Nikon Coolpix 3100Nikon Coolpix 3500 - Nikon Coolpix 3700 - Nikon Coolpix 4300Nikon Coolpix 4500 - Nikon Coolpix 5000Nikon Coolpix 5400Nikon Coolpix 5700 - Nikon Coolpix SQ

Compact numérique Nikon Coolpix 100

Nikon Coolpix 100
Sortie en 1997, c'est le premier appareil photo compact numérique Nikon. Il ouvre la longue série des COOLPIX. Avant le Coolpix 100, Nikon avait produit des appareils numériques mais ceux-ci n'étaient pas des compacts.
Liens [A VENIR] vers d'autres messages connexes du blog [INACTIFS POUR L' INSTANT] : Anciens Compacts NikonNikon Coolpix 300 --- Nikon Coolpix 600 --- Nikon Coolpix 700 --- Nikon Coolpix 775 --- Nikon Coolpix 800 --- Nikon Coolpix 880 --- Nikon Coolpix 885 --- Nikon Coolpix 900 --- Nikon Coolpix 950 --- Nikon Coolpix 990 --- Nikon Coolpix 995 --- Nikon Coolpix 2000 --- Nikon Coolpix 2100 --- Nikon Coolpix 2500 --- Nikon Coolpix 3100 --- Nikon Coolpix 3500 --- Nikon Coolpix 3700 --- Nikon Coolpix 4300 --- Nikon Coolpix 4500 --- Nikon Coolpix 5000 --- Nikon Coolpix 5400 --- Nikon Coolpix 5700 --- Nikon Coolpix SQ
Photo (c) Nikon - Tous droits réservés

October 13, 1997

Epson and Software 2000 Renew Agreement

It was announced today that SEIKO Epson Corporation (Suwa, Nagano, Japan) and Software 2000 International (Oxford, England) have formally renewed their long-term collaborative development partnership as part of a new two year agreement. The companies have worked together on printer drivers for Windows since the launch of the Epson Stylus Color in Spring 1994 and this ongoing relationship has continued to the present day.
The initial results of this partnership can be seen today throughout the Epson Stylus product range, and particularly in printer models such as the Epson Stylus Color 400/600/800 and the Epson Stylus Photo Printer.
Software 2000 specializes in the development of driver technology for DOS, Windows 3.x, Windows 95/98, Windows NT and OS/2 on behalf of original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) throughout the world. In just seven years, Software 2000 has grown into a multi-million dollar company with offices in Monterey, California and Oxford, England. The company is the largest 3rd party developer of printer drivers in the world.
Wanafoto : Software 2000 change its name. The company's name is now Sofware Imaging

October 5, 1997

Sol LeWitt Wall Drawing 830 Sackler Museum

A new wall drawing by conceptual artist Sol LeWitt (b. 1928), Wall Drawing #830: Four Isometric Figures with Color Ink Washes Superimposed, has been installed in the Arthur M. Sackler Museum's lobby – Harvard University Art Museums. Comprising four large-scale geometric shapes on fields of primary colors, the drawing dramatically amplifies and animates the Sackler's double-height entry space. The project was organized by James Cuno, director of the Art Museums, to create a friendlier, more inviting space for visitors, while at the same time giving the public easy access to a major work by one of our generation's premier draftsmen.

Sol LeWitt has been a dominating influence in contemporary art for several decades. His wall drawings have been installed in major museums worldwide. Although his work emphasizes conception rather than implementation, the final product is always visually pleasing.

"This is a beautiful work of art in its own right, but all the more beautiful for how it transforms and enhances the lobby of the Sackler Museum," said James Cuno. "We believe it demonstrates our commitment to working with contemporary artists and to offering our public new, exciting, and easily accessible aesthetic experiences. Anyone walking down Quincy Street or Broadway can now take refuge in the midst of a great work of art."

The installation of Wall Drawing #830 was led by Anthony Sansotta, who has worked with LeWitt for nineteen years, with the help of other assistants to LeWitt, local students and artists and staff at the Art Museums. The project was supported by the Contemporary Art Sub-Committee of the Art Museums Collections Committee, led by Gabriella de Ferrari and Bruce Beal.

The museum is located at 485 Broadway, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

October 1, 1997

Tracey Moffatt at Dia Center for the Arts, NYC

Tracey Moffatt: Free-falling
Dia Center for the Arts, New York
October 9, 1997 - June 14, 1998

Dia Center for the Arts presents an exhibition of the work of Australian photographer and filmmaker, Tracey Moffatt. This exhibition, entitled Free-falling, will be on view on the fourth floor of Dia's galleries at 548 West 22nd Street, New York City.

Free-falling includes two newly commissioned works: a suite of twenty-five photographs called Up in the Sky (1996) and a video installation, Tracey Moffatt's first in this medium. The subject of this video piece will be a surfer, a figure close to the heart of Australia's contemporary self-image. By contrast, Up in the Sky, which was shot near Broken Hill in the Outback, draws on imagery and a landscape that have long been central to the Australian mythos. In addition, the exhibition includes Guapa (Goodlooking), a series of twelve monochrome photographs loosely based on the theme of the roller derby, which Tracey Moffatt made in 1995 while on a residency at ArtPace in San Antonio, and Night Cries: A Rural Tragedy (1990), her early but prophetic short film. Guapa explores the intersection of violence with eroticism as sanctioned under the umbrella of sport. Silhouetted against neutral backdrops, the carefully choreographed female contestants create formally compelling images recalling at times sculptural groupings from the art of the past: artifice is as intrinsic to this sport as it is to Tracey Moffatt's aesthetic.

Of Abori-ginal descent, Tracey Moffatt has gained increasing international attention in the past several years. In 1995 she was awarded a prize at the Kwangju Biennale in Korea, and two of her films were shown at the Cannes Film Festival. Given that she is also included in this year's Venice Biennale and Site Santa Fe exhibitions, Tracey Moffatt, who was born in 1960 in Brisbane, is among the preeminent Australian artists of her generation. Free-falling is her most substantial exhibition to date.

Major funding for this exhibition has been provided by the Lannan Foundation, The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, The Embassy of Australia on behalf of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, and The Australia Council for the Arts with an additional generous contribution by the Wolfensohn Family Foundation.

Dia Center for the Arts

September 20, 1997

Willy Ronis Retrospective, Galleria Carla Sozzani, Milan

Retrospective 1926-1983
Galleria Carla Sozzani, Milan
13 September - 31 November 1997

“Geometries modulated by the heart” produced “during free excursions, with no specific goal, on the edge of chance”.

This is the story in images (149) of Willy Ronis, photographer and poet, sentimental walker from the Thirties to the Eighties, whose photographs, the product of an unconscious process, approach “automatic writing”.

Affected by events in history in his time – he was born in 1910 – and the changes and upheavals resulting from the popular front, and then war, Ronis always maintains a modest distance from man and his environment in order to find a poetry that is not immediately apparent.

He comments: “This activity involves a lot of risk, not physical risk – for I rarely cover distant places – but risk of failure.
While on some days subjects are served up to us as if on a plate, on other days we don’t see anything, not because there is nothing to see, but because we do not see what is clearly there. This is why the enterprises is rarely fun; it demands concentration, and therefore solitude, and is, at least as far as I am concerned, founded on rejection of the picturesque, the exceptional”.

A humanist photographer and a “polygraph”, as he liked to call himself, Willy Ronis worked in a variety of different areas: reporting, illustration, fashion, teaching, and was involved in many image-related professions.

In this exhibition focusing on people, he portrays a variety of subjects: Paris in the ’40s and its post-war people; nudes and public scenes; children’s games and young brides and grooms; Marie-Anne, the love of his whole life, and famous people (Sartre, Picasso, etc…). His snapshots are tender, funny or serious, expressing his bewildered search for communion with human beings. “Where does it fit in, the search, the truth? In the familiar, the universal dimension. Not in that which surprises us, but in that which moves us”.

Galleria Carla Sozzani
Corso Como 10 – 20154 Milano, Italia

September 15, 1997

Richard Serra at Dia Center for the Arts, New York

Richard Serra: "Torqued Ellipses"
Dia Center for the Arts, New York
September 25, 1997 - June 14, 1998

Dia Center for the Arts presents an exhibition of new sculpture by the American artist RICHARD SERRA. Titled "Torqued Ellipses," this exhibition will mark the debut of Dia's second exhibition building for temporary exhibitions, at 545 West 22nd Street, located directly across the street from its current facility at 548 West 22nd Street, New York City.

The Torqued Ellipses mark a new departure in Richard Serra's oeuvre, one which involves bending steel in a totally unprecedented manner. Four years ago, Serra conceived this group of approximately twenty sculptures in the form of lead models. A CATIA computer program was developed from the models to enable a rolling machine to torque the steel plates. After a protracted search, Serra finally located Beth Ship, a shipyard and rolling mill at Sparrow's Point outside Baltimore, which was willing to undertake the project. To date, four sculptures from this series have been realized, three of which will be on view at Dia this fall.

As Mark Taylor writes in his essay for the catalogue that will accompany the exhibition:
The effect of these works is extraordinary. Though made of heavy industrial materials and massive in size, they have the delicacy of finely folded ribbon or even paper twisted to form a Möbius strip that never quite reaches closure. As one moves from outside to inside by passing through the gap in these works, everything shifts. Lines that appear straight on the outside bend and buckle on the inside; arcs that seem to tilt away when viewed from without bend inward to enfold subject in object when experienced from within. As twisted space surrounds or even circulates through the perceptive body, the space and time of the work of art become utterly destabilizing and disorienting.

Born in San Francisco in 1939, RICHARD SERRA has a longstanding engagement with steel. After financing his college degree by working in steel mills, Serra adopted steel as his preferred material in the late sixties: he has continued to use it in different ways, propped, bent, forged, and rolled for over three decades.

Since his first solo show in Rome in 1966, Richard Serra has had numerous exhibitions throughout the world, including a 1986 retrospective at the Museum of Modern Art, New York. In addition, he has created a number of seminal site-specific sculptures in public venues in both North America and Europe. Most recently, as his contribution to the current Sculpture Projects in Münster, Germany, Serra was commissioned to make a permanent installation at one of that city's most renowned historic buildings, the Haus Rüschhaus designed by the Baroque architect J.C. Schlaun. Serra recently installed Snake, a 100-feet-long, 13-feet-high sculpture commissioned by the Guggenheim's new museum in Bilbao. In the fall of 1998, he will open an exhibition of large-scale installations at the Geffen Contemporary at the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles.

Dia Center for the Arts

May 15, 1997

Sydney J. Freedberg (1914-1997)


Sydney J. Freedberg, Arthur Kingsley Porter Professor emeritus of Harvard University, chief curator emeritus at the National Gallery of Art, Washington, died at his home in Washington, D.C. on May 6, 1997. He was 82. Professor Freedberg, a legendary figure in his field, High Renaissance art, was awarded the National Medal of Arts in 1988 by the President of the United States, the only scholar ever to have been so decorated. 

Professor Freedberg graduated from Boston Latin School in 1932. He held an A.B. summa cum laude '36 Phi Beta Kappa, A.M. '39, and Ph.D. '40, from Harvard University. He taught at Harvard from 1954-1983. He served as chairman of the Department of Fine Arts at Harvard from 1959 to 1963, acting chairman in 1958 and 1972-73. He was acting director of the Fogg Art Museum in 1978-79. He was also a member of the Lauro de Bosis Committee for Italian Civilization and the Advisory Committee of Harvard's Center for Renaissance Studies at the Villa I Tatti outside Florence, where in 1973-74 and 1980-81 he was professor in residence. He became chief curator of the National Gallery in 1983 upon retiring from Harvard University.
"Sydney J. Freedberg was by any account one of the towering figures among Renaissance art historians of this century," Neil Rudenstine, president of Harvard University, said in a statement. "But he was also much more than that. He had a masterful command of the entire corpus of the vast field that he claimed as his own. And that command left him free to concentrate all his efforts on developing a way of looking at Renaissance (and Mannerist and Baroque) Italian art that was literally sui generis. 

"His ability to describe the nuances, the significant turning points, and the broad unfolding developments in style; his creation of a personal critical vocabulary that allowed him to express changing conceptions of Renaissance values in terms of their effect on works of art; his insistence on making judgments based on his sure instinct for aesthetic quality; and his intuitive understanding of the sensibility as well as the underlying energy and motivating visionof particular artists: these (and other) characteristics made Sydney Freedberg a unique presence at Harvard and far beyond. "He had the large-scale ambition and individuality that we are likely to associate more with nineteenth-century scholars. He wrote big books that followed one another as if they were part of a marvelous self-created continuum. He was therefore always at some risk, since there was ample materialof great scope as well as richness of detailfor others to criticize. 

"But that did not matter, because Freedberg always had the utterly essential instruments at hand to do his work: powerful and penetrating visual and interpretive capacities, and an equally potent aesthetic and conceptual vision of his chosen terrain. 

"As a person, scholar and connoisseur, he was all of a piece: formidable but affectionate, exacting but generous, humane, and very deep. We have lost someone who cared greatly about art because he cared about life. The authenticity and uniqueness of his care were as evident in how he lived, as in how he wrote."
"Sydney will be deeply missed," James Cuno, director of the Harvard University Art Museums, remarked, "not only for what he knew about the art of Renaissance Italy but for the set of unique and refined sensibilities he brought to his subject. He was unique as a scholar and teacher. His lectures cannot be forgotten: they were so perceptive, so intelligent, and so finely crafted. Above all, he defined the aesthetic achievement of the High Renaissance and the Maniera for his generation and for many generations still to come. We have lost a great mentor and a dear friend." 

During the Second World War, while serving as an American army officer, attached to a British naval intelligence unit involved with the Normandy invasion, Professor Freedberg risked disciplinary action by refusing as a matter of conscience to work on intelligence about Rome. Later he would say that "I was worried that the information I might gather might be used in a military operation against that city," and thus lead to irreparable damage to works of art there. Despite his decision, and for his numerous contributions to the war effort, he was made an Honorary Member of the Order of the British Empire (Military Division). 

Twenty years later Italian art was again gravely threatened. In November 1966, news broke of disastrous floods in Italy. Art historians of the American academic and museum worlds responded instantaneously and formed the Committee to Rescue Italian Art, of which Professor Freedberg served as National Vice Chairman from 1966 through 1974. Under these auspices he, and others, raised money to offset the extraordinary cost of conserving the works damaged by the rising waters. In 1970, Professor Freedberg began service on the Board of Directors of Save Venice, of which he was a founding member. He continued on the Board until 1990, and continued to serve that organization until his death. 

For all of these distinguished contributions to the preservation and greater understanding of Italian art and culture, Professor Freedberg was made a Grand Officer in the Order of the Star of Solidarity (Italy) in 1968 and a Grand Officer of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic in 1982, the highest honor Italy awards a non-National. He was also awarded honors in 1986 by the Socio del Ateneo Veneto and the Academia Clementina Bologna. A year later he began service on the Advisory Council to the Vatican Museums for the Sistine Chapel Restoration (serving as President from 1990 to 1993). And in 1988 he began a term on the I Tatti Council, serving as chairman of that organization from 1989 to 1994. From 1971-90, he served on the Advisory Committee, Harvard University Center for Renaissance Studies (Villa I Tatti). In 1995, he was awarded the International Galileo Galilei Prize. 

"Professor Freedberg trained many people prominent in the field today," Everett Fahy, chairman of the Department of European Paintings at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, said in a statement. "He was the great continuer of the Berenson tradition." 

Philippe de Montebello, director of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, said in a statement: "It is a pity there are no more Sydney Freedbergs to enrich today's arid field of art history as it is taught. He was a true inspiration, believed in quality and communicated it convincingly." 

"One of my proudest accomplishments was participating in bringing Sydney J. Freedberg to the National Gallery as chief curator, a position he came to upon retiring from Harvard," John Wilmerding, chair, Department of Art and Archaeology, Princeton University, and former deputy director, National Gallery of Art, said in a statement. "It proved to be a crowning accomplishment of his distinguished career. With the combination of his authoritative scholarly standards and acute visual sensitivity, he brought a new level of luster to that institution. He was a titan in our field, who has left us a rare legacy of eloquent critical expression and deepest feeling for great works of art." 

Earl A. Powell III, director of the National Gallery of Art, said in an a statement: "Sydney was one of the century's great connoisseurs of Italian painting. His knowledge and engaging personality made him a legend in his time. He was wonderful to work with and I greatly valued his encouragement and counsel as advisor on my thesis. He will be sorely missed." 

Professor Freedberg's love of Italian art was deep and profound, but his love of the Villa I Tatti was even greater and more deeply personal. It was there, as a student of Bernard Berenson, that he felt most at home in the intellectual universe that comprised his professional identity and the sensuous surroundings that confirmed the rightness of his choice of academic specialty. 

Walter Kaiser, director of the Villa I Tatti, wrote of Professor Freedberg: "For almost four decades, Sydney Freedberg was intimately involved in the Harvard University Center for Italian Renaissance Studies at Villa I Tatti. In both his person and his scholarship, he exemplified precisely those humanistic values to which I Tatti is dedicated; and from its inception he was one of the chief scholars who helped define its mission, shape its policies, advise its directors, and choose its Fellows. But there was also, beyond that, an intense love-affair between Sydney and I Tatti, which extended back to the days of his mentor, Bernard Berenson. I Tatti was Sydney's Italian home, and the boundless affection he felt for it was reciprocated in equal measure by the members of its staff, all of whom revered him. With his death, I Tatti has lost one of the most beloved members of its family, and I have lost one of my dearest friends." 

Professor Freedberg wrote numerous books and articles on Italian art, including: Circa 1600: A Revolution of Style in Italian Painting (1983; in Italian, 1984; in French 1993); Painting in Italy, 1500-1600 (1971; rev. eds. 1975, 1978, 1990, 1993; in Spanish, 1978; in Italian, 1988), part of the Pelican Series in the History of Art; Paintings of the High Renaissance in Rome and Florence (2 vols., 1961; rev. ed. 1972, 1985); a two-volume study with catalogue raisonné of the Florentine High Renaissance painter Andrea del Sarto (1963); and Parmigianino: His Works in Painting (1950).

March 10, 1997

Joseph Kosuth at Irish Museum of Modern Art, Dublin

Joseph Kosuth: Guests and Foreigners, Rules and Meanings
Irish Museum of Modern Art, Dublin
13 March - 11 June 1997

The first solo exhibition in Ireland of the work of Joseph Kosuth, one of the founders of Conceptual art, opens to the public at the Irish Museum of Modern Art on 13 March. The exhibition, entitled Guests and Foreigners, Rules and Meanings (James Joyce, Pola, Roma, Trieste, Paris, Zurich, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Dublin, County Wicklow, Connemara), includes a large scale installation which utilises the writings and history of two important 20th-century figures; James Joyce and Austrian philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. This installation, one of his most ambitious to date, will counterpoint 14 seminal works (from 1965 to 1997) which established Kosuth as one of the pivotal figures in Conceptual art. 

Joseph Kosuth’s work played a key role in the redefinition of art which took place in the 1960s and ‘70s, which questioned traditional art forms and practices and the assumptions surrounding them. The questions asked then are still contested as a new generation comes under their influence, and Kosuth is at the centre of these debates. For Kosuth the meaning of art, as expressed in language, is more important than its appearance, the concept more important than the object. Through a variety of means, from dictionary definitions to advertising billboards, he presents abstracted information to the viewer. This information simultaneously explains itself and broadens the perceptions of artistic practice as it reveals the mechanisms which produce meaning. 

Joseph Kosuth describes the process used in works such as One and Three Chairs 1965, one of the key works in the exhibition: “I used common, functional objects - such as a chair - and to the left of the object would be a full-scale photograph of it and to the right of the object would be a photostat of a definition of the object from the dictionary. Everything you saw when you looked at the object had to be the same that you saw in the photograph, so each time the work was exhibited the new installation necessitated a new photograph. I like the fact that the work itself was something other than simply what you saw. By changing the location, the object, and still having it remain the same work was very interesting. It meant you could have an art work which was that idea of an art work, and its formal components weren’t important ... The expression was in the idea, not the form - the forms were only a device in the service of the idea.” 

Born in Toledo, Ohio, in 1945, Joseph Kosuth studied at the Cleveland Institute of Art; the School of Visual Arts, New York City and New School for Social Research. He was a founder member of the Art and Language group and contributed to the defining debates of that period in the late 1960s and early ‘70s before leaving in 1975. He has been a prize winner at the 1993 Venice Biennale, and was made Chevalier de l’ordre des Arts et des Lettres by the French government in 1993. His collected writings Art after Philosophy and After were published by the M.I.T. Press in 1991. He has lectured widely throughout Europe and North America, and is presently a professor at the Stuttgart Kunstakademie. His work has been shown in countless solo and group exhibitions worldwide and forms part of all the major public collections and many key private collections. He lives in New York City and Ghent, Belgium. 

Irish Museum of Modern Art
Royal Hospital, Military Road, Kilmainham, Dublin 8

March 1, 1997

Picasso: The Early Years, 1892-1906, National Gallery of Art, Washington & Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

Picasso: The Early Years, 1892-1906
National Gallery of Art, Washington
March 30 - July 27, 1997
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
September 10, 1997 - January 4, 1998

Nowhere has the early genius of the twentieth century's most prolific and influential artist been more clearly realized than in the extraordinary exhibition Picasso: The Early Years, 1892-1906, which will premiere at the National Gallery of Art, March 30 through July 27, 1997. It will then travel to its only other venue, the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, September 10, 1997, through January 4, 1998.

This is the most comprehensive survey ever assembled of works created by Picasso between the ages of eleven and twenty- five, including his famous Blue and Rose periods, prior to the advent of cubism. The master's early work is distinguished by a remarkable range of styles and techniques.

Organized by the National Gallery of Art and the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, the show will contain approximately 150 paintings, drawings, pastels, prints, and sculpture, including works that have never before been exhibited in the United States.
"Picasso: The Early Years, 1892-1906 examines a short period in Picasso's career characterized by innovation, brilliant draftsmanship, and a virtuosic succession of styles, ending with works of great monumentality," said Earl A. Powell III, director, National Gallery. "It would be impossible for the Gallery to mount important exhibitions of such depth and breadth without corporate sponsors like Bell Atlantic."
"Pablo Picasso revolutionized twentieth-century art, experimenting, innovating, and striking out in new directions," said Raymond W. Smith, chairman and chief executive officer of Bell Atlantic. "Through this exhibition and the outreach programs that bring it to schools, to the Internet, and to a public with a demonstrated passion for great art, Bell Atlantic is proud to continue its long tradition of making information -- inspired and inspiring images included -- available to the people we serve." This is the fourth exhibition at the National Gallery sponsored by Bell Atlantic since 1987.
"This extraordinary assemblage of works tracing Picasso's development is unprecedented," said Malcolm Rogers, director, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. "This exhibition reveals not only the beginnings of Picasso's early genius, but also the origins of the modernist movement in European art. We are extremely grateful to NYNEX for making this exhibition possible in Boston."
Pablo Ruiz Picasso, born in Málaga, Spain, on October 25, 1881, began to draw and paint around the age of seven and was registered in the School of Fine Arts in La Coruña in 1892. His real artistic training began in Barcelona three years later, a city to which he often returned after sojourns to Madrid and Paris, until he took up permanent residence in Paris in 1904.

The exhibition begins with Picasso's academic studies of plaster casts and nudes and early portraits, such as Girl with Bare Feet (1895) from the Musée Picasso, Paris. His subsequent introduction to post-impressionist and symbolist painting is shown in such works as Spanish Couple before an Inn (1900) from the Kawamura Memorial Museum of Art and Moulin de la Galette (1900) from the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York.

Works from the artist's Blue period, named for the monochromatic palette he used to represent figures largely drawn from the socio-economic underclass in Barcelona and Paris, include the paintings Two Women at a Bar (1902) from the Hiroshima Museum of Art, Crouching Woman (1902) from the Art Gallery of Ontario, and La Vie (1903) from The Cleveland Museum of Art, as well as the 1904 etching The Frugal Repast.

Distinguished by a palette of roseate hues, works in the show from Picasso's Rose period include the paintings Family of Saltimbanques* (1905) from the National Gallery of Art, Washington, and Harlequin's Family with an Ape (1905) from the Göteborgs Konstmuseum, Sweden.

By 1906, inspired by a trip to the Spanish Pyrenees, Picasso imbued his figures with a monumentality that can be traced to the reductive proportions of ancient and medieval Iberian sculpture. This is illustrated in such paintings as Woman with Loaves (1906) from the Philadelphia Museum of Art and Nude on Red Background (1906) from the Musée de l'Orangerie, Paris. The exhibition ends with this phase of Picasso's work, as his subsequent interests foreshadow a new epoch in the artist's career.

The curators of the exhibition are: from the National Gallery of Art, Mark Rosenthal, former curator, and Jeffrey Weiss, associate curator, twentieth-century art, who will be the coordinating curator for the exhibition in Washington; and from the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, George Shackelford, curator, and Robert Boardingham, assistant curator, European paintings, who will be the cooordinating curator for the exhibition in Boston. The advisory committee includes John Richardson, author of A Life of Picasso: The Early Years, 1881-1906 and A Life of Picasso 1907-1917: The Painter of Modern Life, parts of a four-volume series on the life of Picasso, and Picasso specialist Jean Sutherland Boggs.

A 400-page fully illustrated catalogue will be published by the National Gallery of Art in paperback and by Yale University Press in hardback. It contains ten essays by Picasso scholars, arranged chronologically with color plates of early works by the artist, as well as an extensive chronology of Picasso's early life from 1881 to 1906. The scholarly editor is Marilyn McCully, an art historian based in London, who is a collaborative author with John Richardson on his series on the life of Picasso.

* - Family of Saltimbanques was presented to the National Gallery of Art by Chester Dale and by the terms of his bequest may not be lent.

National Gallery of Art, Washington DC

February 1, 1997

Peter Cain at Matthew Marks Gallery, NYC

Peter Cain: New Paintings ans Drawings
Matthew Marks Gallery, New York
February 1 - March 15, 1997

Matthew Marks presents Peter Cain: New Paintings and Drawings. This exhibition includes the artist's final completed works. Peter Cain died suddenly and tragically of a cerebral hemorrhage, age 37, on Sunday, January 5th, 1997.

The exhibition, which open as originally scheduled, consists of new paintings and drawings, made by the artist over the past two years. In a radical departure from his earlier work in which cars were the exclusive subject matter, Cain spent the last two years working with the traditional themes of landscape and portraiture.

This exhibition includes three large-scale paintings of a man's head and six smaller canvases of Los Angeles industrial landscapes. A range of related graphite drawings are also be included.

Peter Cain was included in both the 1993 and 1995 Biennial Exhibitions at the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York. His work has been exhibited in San Francisco, Los Angeles, Tokyo and Milan in the past year.

Matthew Marks Gallery
523 W 24th Street
New York, NY 10011